Law of Torts Notes for CLAT

Law of Torts is like a set of rules that handle civil wrongs, or torts – basically, actions that harm someone or their stuff. It’s a big deal because it gives a path for folks who’ve been hurt by someone else to get compensated. Whether you’re just starting out and want a solid intro to tort law or you’re looking to boost what you already know, these notes on the law of torts are here to help you out.

Some General Conditions In Law of Torts Notes

To engage in tortious conduct, certain criteria must be met.

Acts and Omissions in Torts:
  • To establish a tort, a wrongful act, whether through action or inaction, must occur.
  • Acts beyond human control or mere thoughts are not actionable.
  • Exceptionally, omissions may lead to liability when there is a duty to act.
  • A person must fulfill their duty entirely, especially in voluntary rescue situations.
Voluntary and Involuntary Acts:
  • Distinguishing between voluntary and involuntary acts is crucial for determining liability.
  • Voluntary acts may incur liability, while involuntary acts may not.
  • The legal assessment of surrounding circumstances determines the wrongfulness and liability of an act.
Malice in Torts:
  • Malice is not always essential for a tort action.
  • Two types: ‘express malice’ (ill will) and ‘malice in law’ (wrongful act without just cause).
  • A lawful act with a malicious motive generally does not make it actionable.
  • Malice is integral in certain wrongful acts, including defamation and malicious prosecution.
Intention, Motive, Negligence, and Recklessness:
  • Reparation for a wrongful act arises from fault, not necessarily intention.
  • Invasion of civil rights constitutes a legal wrong, irrespective of the motive.
  • Lack of knowledge about the illegality of an act is not a valid excuse.
  • Liability is based on the natural consequences of an act, whether intended or not.
Malfeasance, Misfeasance, and Nonfeasance:
  • Malfeasance involves the commission of an unlawful act, often actionable per se.
  • Misfeasance pertains to the improper performance of a lawful act.
  • Nonfeasance refers to the failure to perform a obligated act.
Fault in Torts:
  • Liability in torts typically depends on a fault violating another’s rights.
  • Absolute or strict liability may arise without fault, as seen in cases like Rylands v. Fletcher.
  • The law of torts encompasses intentional and negligent wrongs, influenced by flexible public policy and social needs.

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