President of India: The office of the President is very august and the Constitution attaches to it many privileges and immunities. The President along with the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister comprises the Central executive which has been dealt from Article 52 to 78 of the Constitution. The President is the head of the state and the formal executive. All executive action at the centre is expressed to be taken in his name. This power has been granted to him under Article 53(1) which states that the executive power shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him directly or through officers subordinate to him.
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Powers of President are as Follows
- The President is the leader of India, overseeing all administrative actions in their name.
- They have the authority to appoint, transfer, and remove high officials.
- The President holds the supreme command of the Defense Forces.
- They act as the Commander-in-Chief, having the competence to declare war and peace, though with some parliamentary control.
- As the head of state, the President represents the nation in foreign affairs.
- They send and receive ambassadors, negotiate treaties, and international agreements in the nation’s name.
- The President executes all government actions, appointing key officials and administering Union Territories.
- They have the authority to declare scheduled and tribal areas and appoint Inter-State Councils.
- The President has absolute, suspensive, and pocket veto powers over bills presented by Parliament.
- The President can summon, prorogue, and dissolve Parliament.
- They nominate members to the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha, and, together with the Election Commission, decide on disqualifications.
Power to Make Rules:
- Delegated by Parliament, the President has rule-making power on various matters, such as authentication of orders and appointment of officers.
Power to Issue Ordinances:
- The President can promulgate ordinances in urgent situations, but parliamentary approval is necessary within a specified period.
Power in Relation to State Legislation:
- The President may reserve bills for their consideration and sanction is required for certain state laws.
- The President recommends financial and money bills and constitutes the Finance Commission every five years.
- The President can grant pardons, commute sentences, and seek advice from the Supreme Court in certain cases.
- The President appoints judges and has powers related to the judiciary.
- The President can proclaim emergencies in cases of war, armed rebellion, or financial instability, with the authority to suspend fundamental rights or assume state government functions.
List of Indian Presidents
The Indian Constitution, a guidebook for our nation, was officially adopted on a chilly 26th November in 1949, making it a historical milestone. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, a stalwart leader, stepped into the role of the first President on a significant day, 26th January 1950, when the Constitution officially kicked in. Now, fast forward to our times, Ram Nath Kovind, our 14th President, gracefully concluded his term in July 2022. Interesting twist – he chose not to run for re-election, paving the way for a new face. Enter Draupadi Murmu, who, come July 2022, became the 15th President, thanks to the nod from the electoral college.
|13 May 1952 – 13 May 195713 May 1957 – 13 May 1962
|He was elected twice as the presidentHe was also the president of the constituent assembly before being elected for this post.
|13 May 1962 – 13 May 1967
|Radhakrishnan was a prominent philosopher and writer.
He also held the position of vice-chancellor of the Andhra University and Banaras Hindu University.
|13 May 1967 – 3 May 1969
|He was the recipient of Padma Vibhushan and Bharat Ratna.
He was the shortest-serving president and passed away in office.
|Varahagiri Venkata Giri
|3 May 1969 – 20 July 196924 August 1969 – 24 August 1974
|He was elected Vice President of India in 1967.
He served as the president for a short term due to the sudden death of Zakir Hussain in office.
|Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
|24 August 1974 – 11 February 1977
|He was the president during Emergency.
He was the second president who died in office.
|Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
|25 July 1977 – 25 July 1982
|He was the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh.
He became the youngest President who occupied Rashtrapati Bhavan and contested twice for the post of president.
|25 July 1982 – 25 July 1987
|He was the Chief Minister of Punjab and the Union Home Minister
|25 July 1987 – 25 July 1992
|He is a receiver of “Tamra Patra” for his contributions to India’s freedom struggle.
|Shankar Dayal Sharma
|25 July 1992 – 25 July 1997
|He was Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh and the Indian Minister for Communications.
|Kocheril Raman Narayanan
|25 July 1997 – 25 July 2002
|He served as India’s ambassador to Thailand, Turkey, China and the United States of America.
|Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam
|25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007
|He played a leading role in the development of India’s ballistic missile and nuclear weapons programs.
He was also a Bharat Ratna recipient.
|25 July 2007 – 25 July 2012
|She was the first woman president of India.
|25 July – 25 July 2017
|He was awarded the best Parliamentary Award in 1997.
He also received Padma Vibhushan in 2008
|Ram Nath Kovind
|25 July 2017 – 25 July 2022
|He served as the Governor of Bihar.
|25 July 2022 – Incumbent
|She has served as the governor of Jharkhand previously.
Qualification of Indian President
President is elected by the process of proportional representation with means of a single transferable vote. President can be removed by the process of impeachment.
The qualification for the post of the President of India is given below:
- He should be an Indian Citizen
- His age should be a minimum of 35 years
- He should qualify the conditions to be elected as a member of the Lok Sabha
- He should not hold any office of profit under the central government, state government, or any public authority.
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