Remedies to Law of Torts: Judicial and Extra-Judicial Remedies

Remedies to Law of Torts: When someone has been wronged or had their rights violated, the law provides ways to make things right again, and these are called legal remedies. Think of it like fixing a situation so it’s fair. Now, there are different ways to do this. Let’s say someone took your stuff – the court might tell them to give it back just like it was, or if that’s not possible, they might have to pay you for it. And, if the wrongdoing was really bad, the court might even give the other party a talking-to or some kind of punishment. It’s like making sure everyone gets treated fairly in the end.

Remedies for Torts

  • Judicial Remedies: These are the remedies for torts that the courts of law provisions to an aggrieved party.
  • Extra- Judicial Remedies: If the injured party takes the law into their own hand (albeit lawfully), the remedies for torts are called extra-judicial remedies.

Judicial Remedies for Torts

As the term suggests, these are the remedies for torts that the courts of law provide to an aggrieved party. Judicial remedies are of three main types:

  • Damages
  • Injunction
  • Specific Restitution of Property


  1. Damages, in legal terms, refer to the money paid to someone who has suffered harm or loss due to a wrongful act (tort). The goal is to restore the aggrieved party to the state they were in before the harmful event occurred.
  2. Think of damages as a form of compensation for the injured party, known as the plaintiff. It’s a way to assist them in recovering from the losses they’ve experienced as a result of the wrongdoing.
  3. Damages are the primary solution in legal actions involving torts. It’s important to note that “damages” should not be confused with the plural form of “damage,” which generally means harm or injury.
  4. While “damage” might sound like physical harm, in the legal context, it extends to any form of loss suffered by the plaintiff. The idea is to provide monetary relief that corresponds to the harm suffered.
  5. The underlying principle guiding the assessment of damages is fairness. The goal is to fully compensate the claimant, ensuring they are returned to the position they would have been in had the wrongful act never occurred. This often involves a monetary award.
  6. In essence, damages aim to restore the injured party to the life they would have had if the harm hadn’t taken place. The method of restoration is through the payment of money, attempting to make the victim whole again.

Types of Damages

  • Exemplary or Vindictive Damages:
    • These are damages awarded to the injured party that go beyond mere compensation for their losses. They come into play when the wrongdoing is accompanied by factors like violence, oppression, or malice, making the situation more severe.
  • Ordinary or Real Damages:
    • This type of compensation is designed to cover general damages resulting from a breach of contract or violation of legal rights. These damages are implied by law and aim to fairly address the harm suffered.
  • Nominal Damages:
    • Nominal damages serve as a symbolic vindication of a right when no actual loss or injury can be proven. It acknowledges the breach of rights without a substantial financial award.
  • Contemptuous Damages:
    • When a court acknowledges a technical infringement of the claimant’s legal rights but disapproves of their behavior, contemptuous damages may be ordered. These damages are typically minimal, often equivalent to the least valuable coin of the realm, indicating the court’s disapproval of the legal action brought forth.


Imagine a legal process that’s all about personal connections, like a face-to-face conversation. In this special legal chat, you’re kindly asked to either do something specific or steer clear of a certain action. It’s like a friendly request from the legal world, aiming to make things clear and straightforward for everyone involved. So, picture it as a friendly nudge to either get something done or avoid a particular deed.

Types of Injunction

  • Mandatory Injunction:
    • When there’s a risk of someone breaking a promise or obligation, the court has the power to order specific actions to prevent the breach (Section 55 of the Specific Relief Act, 1877).
  • Permanent or Perpetual Injunction:
    • A perpetual injunction is a court order that permanently stops someone from asserting a particular right or engaging in an action that would harm the rights of another (Section 53, the Specific Relief Act, 1877).
  • Temporary Injunction:
    • A temporary injunction is a court order that remains in effect until a specified time or until the court issues further instructions. This type of injunction is governed by the CPC (Section 53, The Specific Relief Act, 1877; CPC Order XXXIX Rule 1).
  • Ad-Interim Appointment:
    • An ad interim appointment is made when a temporary or substitute officer is needed because the main officer is absent or unable to perform their duties at the moment.

Restitution of Property

In the world of legal stuff (you know, the Law of Torts), there’s this cool thing called Specific Restitution of Property. Basically, it’s like giving someone their stuff back when it’s been snatched away unfairly. So, picture this: You own some things, and someone wrongfully takes them from you. Well, guess what? You have the right to get your stuff back – it’s like a superhero move for the owner of the goods! They call it restitution, and it’s all about restoring what’s rightfully yours. How awesome is that?

Extra-Judicial Remedies

When someone faces a problem or harm without having to go to court, they can use what we call “extra-judicial remedies for torts.” This means that instead of involving the legal system, individuals can take matters into their own hands to fix the damage done to them. There are five types of these remedies available for people who have experienced some kind of civil wrongdoing. These include kicking out trespassers, reclaiming land rights, retaking possession of goods, dealing with nuisances, and addressing damages caused by someone else’s actions. These options allow individuals to address the harm they’ve suffered without going through the formal court process.

  • Self-Defense:
    • When you or your loved ones are in danger, it’s okay to use force to protect yourself, your family, or your property from an actual or imminent threat.
  • Expelling Trespassers:
    • If someone’s not supposed to be on your property, you have the right to kick them out forcefully.
  • Receiving Personal Property:
    • If you receive movable or transferable stuff (like your personal belongings), that’s what we mean by receiving chattels.
  • Reclaiming Your Land:
    • If someone’s taken over your land without permission, you have the right to reclaim it.
  • Getting Rid of a Nuisance:
    • If something annoying or harmful is happening, you have the right to take action to stop it or reduce its impact. This is called abatement.
  • Dealing with Damage-Causing Animals or Items:
    • If animals or objects are causing harm or getting in the way on your land, you can seize them and keep them until the owner compensates you for the damage they caused. It’s like holding them hostage until things are made right.

Read Also: CLAT Notes: Who may sue and who may be sued under the Law of Torts?

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