Law Courses: CLAT 2024 exam dates were officially released on May 23, 2023. The highly anticipated entrance examination is scheduled to take place on December 3, 2023. Aspiring candidates are advised to keep an eye out for the registration date, which will be notified in due course. Prepare yourself for this prestigious exam and stay updated with the latest announcements to secure your spot in CLAT 2024.
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Career in Law
Law is a prestigious career stream that entices aspirants at various educational levels, ranging from Undergraduate (UG) to Postgraduate (PG) and even Doctorate (PhD) studies in India. This revered profession has been popular among Indian students and has produced eminent figures like Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Ram Jethmalani, and former US President Barack Obama. The scope of a legal career in India is vast, with opportunities extending to corporate houses, law firms, administrative services, and more. Today’s law graduates not only don the traditional black and white attire to represent the court but also leave a mark through groundbreaking cases and legal reforms that bring about positive changes.
Looking back at the history of law in India, revolutionary changes occurred before and after the inception of the Constitution. To regulate and oversee legal education and practice, the Bar Council of India (BCI) was established. A career in law demands rigorous legal research, requiring individuals to invest ample time and effort. Despite the laborious nature, diving deep into legal research is crucial to discern the intricacies of a case. There are no shortcuts in law, and it takes years of dedicated practice for a lawyer to become sharp-witted and proficient.
Traditionally, aspirants gravitated towards criminal or civil specializations due to popular case laws. However, in modern times, law specializations like cyber law, patent law, commercial law, litigation, family law, and corporate law are gaining popularity among Indian law aspirants. Embracing these diverse specializations, law professionals are equipped to tackle contemporary legal challenges and contribute significantly to society.
One can study law in India at various levels as under:
- To make a career in law, aspirants can study five-year integrated LLB courses at the Undergraduate level such as BA LLB, BBA LLB, BLS-LLB, BSc LLB or BCom LLB
- If candidates have already completed their graduation in other streams, and now they wish to make a career in law, then they pursue a three-year LLB course
- For those who want to make a career as Legal Researcher by studying law further, Indian law colleges also offer a two-year or one-year master’s degree in law (LLM) followed by a doctoral degree (PhD).
Law Courses: Highlights
The table below provides a concise overview of various course types in the field of Law, their respective durations, course fees, and entrance exams required for admission. Prospective candidates can refer to this table to get an idea of the average salary offered upon completing these courses and the top recruiters for law graduates.
|Courses||LLB, BA LLB, BSc LLB, BLS LLB, BBA LLB, BCom LLB, LLM, PhD|
|Course level||Graduation/ Postgraduation/ Doctorate|
|Duration||Graduation– 3 years/5 yearsPostgraduation– 1 year/2 yearsDoctorate– Minimum 3 years, Maximum 5 years|
|Course Fee||Up to INR 3 lakh|
|Entrance Exam||DU LLB Entrance Exam, BHU Undergraduate Entrance Test, Telangana State Law Common Entrance Test, CLAT UG|
|Top Colleges||NLSIU, NLU Delhi, NLIU, Jamia Millia Islamia, NALSAR|
|Average Salary||INR 3 to 7 lakh|
|Top Recruiters||Bar Council of India, Law Firms, Multinational Companies, Public Sector and Private Sector Banks, Government Departments, Legal Process Outsourcing|
|Job Positions||Advocate, Legal Advisor, Solicitor, Legal Manager, Law Officer|
All About Law
Law is one of the most popular disciplines of study which deals with the pactices, rules and regulations governing a community and are considered to be binding upon its members. Law is one of most popular courses offered by universities and other law colleges in India. This is evident from the increasing number of law colleges in India, with more than 1000 private and government law colleges.
Why pursue Law?
A degree in law is prestigious and helps in establishing a flourishing career in the field of litigation, judiciary or academics. It gives immense reputation in society and good salary which makes it one of the most sought-after courses after engineering and medical. This course is challenging and demands hard-work but eventually provides greater amount of staility and security in future. It instils within professionals a sense of integrity and morality and help them build the nation by taking up important job profiles such as Advocate, Magistrate, Solicitor etc. Therefore, candidates must surely aspire to pursue this course.
Who can pursue Law?
Any candidate who demonstrates good intellect, fluency and clarity of speech and has excellent convincing skill is fit for this course. Therefore, those candidates who wish to make a career in litigation or judiciary which are the traditional career options after completing Law must surely pursue this course. They must exuberate confidence and must be unbiased in order to exercise their judgment efectively. They must have met all the eligibility requirements in order to secure an admission in Law courses across popular colleges in India.
What is the scope after completing Law?
Depending on the level of study, one can choose various career options after completing Law courses. One can pursue LLM and Subsequetly PhD after completing five-year integrated course or LLB in order to make a career in academics. They must also clear UGC NET or SET in order to be eligible to work as an Assistant Professor. Those who aspire to enter into the field of litigation must enrol themselves in the Bar Council and also clear AIBE in order to be eligible to practice anywhere in India. They can also prepare for judicial exams or other competitive examinations in order to be recruited by Public Sector Companies as Legal Advisors or Legal Managers.
Eligibility for Law
Law colleges across India have a different selection process and eligibility criteria for admissions at UG and PG levels. However, given below is the basic eligibility criteria that candidates need to fulfil to secure admission in law courses offered at UG and PG levels:
- Eligibility for UG Law Courses: Candidates are eligible to secure admission in UG law courses if they have cleared Higher Secondary School/Intermediate (10+2) or its equivalent exam from a recognised board with not less than 45% marks in aggregate.
- Eligibility for PG Law Courses: For admission in LLB (3 years) course, aspirants need to be graduates from a recognised university. Also, for admission in LLM course candidates need to possess an LLB or equivalent degree from a recognised university.
- Eligibility for Doctorate Courses: For admissions to PhD in Law, aspirants must possess valid postgraduation degree from a recognised university and scored not less than 55% marks in aggregate. They must appear in Research Entrance Test conducted by the university and face interview in order to secure a seat in PhD course.
Top Entrance Exams for Law 2023
Admissions to the majority of law colleges and universities in India are based on entrance exams. For undergraduate law courses, these exams assess candidates’ aptitude and knowledge in areas like General Knowledge, English, Mathematics, Logical Reasoning, and Legal Aptitude. In contrast, entrance exams for postgraduate law courses focus on subject-specific topics such as Constitutional Law, Jurisprudence, Contract Law, Torts, Criminal Law, International Law, Environment Law, and Human Rights Law. Aspiring students should consider appearing for popular law entrance exams to secure admission in the country’s best law colleges.
|Name of the Exam||Exam Details||Counselling Details|
|CLAT 2024||Registration: To be announced||Exam Date: 3 Dec 23|
|AILET 2024||Registration: 7 Aug 23||Exam Date: 10 Dec 23|
|MHCET Law 2023||30 Jun 23 (First merit list)||26 Jun 23 – 5 Jul 23|
|Calcutta University Entrance Exam 2023||To be notified||To be notified|
|APLAWCET 2023||Results declared on 16 June 23||To be notified|
|URATPG 2023||Registration: 19 Jun 23 – 26 Jun 23||Exam Date: 6 Jul 23 – 13 Jul 23|
|Lloyd LET 2023||Registration:10 Feb 23 – 15 Jul 23||Exam Date: July- August|
|RULET 2023||Exam Date: 15 Jun 23||August 23|
|SLAT 2023||Merit List 2: 28- 30 June ’23Merit List 3: 3- 15 July 23||July 23|
|ULET 2023||Exam Date: 7 Jul 23||July|
|PU UGLAW 2023||Merit List: 30 Jun 23||12 Jul 23|
|AIL LET 2023||Exam Date: 24 June 23||To be notified|
|SLS AIAT 2023||Exam Date: 24 Jun 23||To be notified|
|BVP CET 2023||Exam Date: 11 Jun 23||To be notified|
|JSAT 2023||Apply before July 2023||To be declared|
|ULSAT 2023||Exam Date: 2 July 23- 3 Jul 23||August|
Law Specialisations in India
Law courses in India provide a range of specializations for students to choose from. These specializations are typically available at the postgraduate level in LLM courses, allowing candidates to focus on specific fields based on market demand and professional needs. Students also have the option to specialize in multiple sub-disciplines of law to expand their knowledge base. Below are some of the popular law specializations that candidates can pursue to build their careers.
|Popular Law Specialisations|
|Admiralty Law||Information Technology Law|
|Air and Space Law||Insurance Law|
|Banking Law||International Trade Law|
|Business Law||Investment Law|
|Civil Law||Intellectual Property Law|
|Competition Law||Labour & Employment Law|
|Constitutional Law||Maritime Law|
|Corporate Law||Media Law|
|Criminal Law||Real Estate Law|
|Cyber Law||Telecommunications Law|
|Environmental Law||Tax Law|
|Healthcare Law||Human Rights and International Law|
Law Courses in India
Candidates can pursue a degree, diploma as well as certificate law courses at UG, PG and PhD levels. Take a look at the pie-chart below to understand the share of these law courses offered at law colleges of India:
- Degree law courses: Now as explained above, candidates can obtain either an integrated law degree (such as BA LLB, BBA LLB, BSc LLB, BCom LLB etc) after Class 12th or a regular three-year LLB degree after graduation. The duration of an integrated LLB degree is usually five years and that of a normal LLB degree is three years.
- Diploma law courses: Candidates can pursue diploma courses at both UG and PG levels. The duration of diploma or PG diploma law courses usually ranges from one to three years.
- Certificate law courses: Certificate law courses are basically short-term programmes whose duration ranges from two weeks to six months.
Mode of Law Education in India
Candidates can pursue law courses as full-time, part-time, distance/ correspondence, online, and virtual classroom programmes. However, it may be noted that a majority of law courses in India are offered as full-time programmes by private colleges and universities. Nonetheless, some law courses in India are also offered by public/ government or public-private institutions in the country.
Online Law Courses in India
These days, many law colleges in India offer online Law courses to students. These courses are self-paced and can be accessed from home giving greater flexibility to the learners. The pricing for these courses are also reasonable, ranging between INR 5000-15,000 and the certificates are widely recognised by recruiters. These courses are popular amongst candidates who wish to expand their knowledge while pursuing their regular degrees or jobs. Given below are the few popular online law courses along with their duration.
|Online Law Courses||Duration|
|Certified Professional in Intellectual Property Rights by Fusion Law School||1 year|
|Diploma in Corporate Laws by My Legal Studio||1 year|
|A Study of Trademark Laws in India by Law Skills||6 months|
|Introduction to Legal Writing||6 months|
|Certificate Course On Taxation Law by My Legal Studio||4 months|
|Regulatory Compliance Specialization by Coursera||4 months|
|Online Certificate Programme in Cyber Law by Indian Law Institute||3 months|
|Online Certificate Programme in Intellectual Property Rights by Indian Law Institute||3 months|
|Contract Law: From Trust to Promise to Contract by Edx||2 months|
|Certified Expert in Trademark Law by Fusion Law School||2 months|
Law Subjects & Syllabus
Law subjects taught in a UG or PG course may vary from college to college. The course is designed in such a way that it gives exposure to candidates on the important legal aspects and also offer them wide range of electives in order to choose a specialization for themselves. Candidates can later further specialize in postgraduate level or also pursue an advanced diploma in any specialization. However, given below is the standard law syllabus that is usually taught in UG and PG-level law courses offered in India:
Law Syllabus (UG Courses)
The undergraduate course in law consists of core and elective subjects ranging from branches such as Humanities or Management or Science. Apart from these subjects, candidates also study honours subjects and other legal subjects such as:
|Bachelor of Law (LLB)||Legal Method, History-I, Political Science-I, Law of Contract – I, Economics-I, English and Legal Language, History – II, Political Science – II, Sociology, Economics – II, Law of Contract – II, Techniques of Communication, Client Interviewing and Counselling, Business Law, Family Law – I, Constitutional Law – I, Law of Crime – I, Communication and Advocacy Skill – II, Law of Torts and Consumer Protection, Family Law – II, Constitutional Law – II, Law of Crime – II, Administrative Law, Code of Civil Procedure – I, Code of Criminal Procedure – I, Law of Evidence, Corporate Law, Jurisprudence – I, Human Rights Law, Code of Civil Procedure – II, Code of Criminal Procedure – II|
|BA LLB||Legal Method, Law of Contract-I, Legal English and Communication Skills, History-I, Sociology-I, Law of Contract –II, Law of Torts and Consumer Protection, History-II, Sociology-II, Political Science-I, Family Law-I, Constitutional Law-I, Law of Crimes-I, Economics-I, Political Science-II, Family Law-II, Constitutional Law-II, Law of Crimes-II, Administrative Law, Economics-II, Environmental Studies and Environmental Laws, Law of Evidence, Corporate Law, Code of Civil Procedure, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), Jurisprudence, International Law|
|BSc LLB||Legal Method, Law of Contract I, English and Legal Language, Electronic Devices, Circuits and IC Technology, Concepts of Chemistry, Introductory Biotechnology and Cell Biology, Electronics Lab, Chemistry Lab, Biotechnology Lab, History, Law of Contract II, Techniques of Communication, Client Interviewing & counseling, Digital Electronics: Microprocessors and Interfaces, Techniques of Chemistry, Tools and techniques of Biotechnology, Business Law, Family Law I, Constitutional I, Law of Crimes I, Advocacy skills, Telecom Engineering Fundamentals, Data and Wireless Communication, Polymer Chemistry, Genetics, Immunology and Molecular Biotechnology, Law of Torts and Consumer Protection, Family Law II, Constitutional Law II, Law of Crimes II, Administrative Law, Programming Fundamentals & Data Base Management System, Physical Pharmacy, Microbial Biotechnology & Fermentation Technology, Code of Civil Procedure I, Code of Criminal Procedure I, Law of Evidence, Jurisprudence I, Human Right Law, Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Plant and Animal Biotechnology, Code of Civil Procedure II, Code of Criminal Procedure II, Public International Law, Investment and Competition law, Property Law|
|BBA LLB||Legal Method, Law of Contract-I, Legal English and Communication Skills, Principles of Management, Managerial Economics, Law of Contract –II, Law of Torts and Consumer Protection, Financial Management, Organisational behavior, Marketing Management, Family Law-I, Constitutional Law-I, Law of Crimes-I, Business Environment & Ethical Practices, Human Resource Management, Family Law-II, Constitutional Law-II, Law of Crimes-II, Administrative Law, Strategic Management, Environmental Studies and Environmental Laws, Law of Evidence, Labour Law-II, Interpretation of Statutes, International Trade Law, Legal Ethics and Court Crafts, Drafting, Pleading and Conveyancing, Land and Real Estate Laws|
|BCom LLB||Business Statistics, Financial Accounting, Auditing I, English I, Law of Contract I, Woman, Child & the Law, Proficiency (Non-credit)Business Communication, Economics, English II, Law of Contract II, History of Courts, Legislation & Legal Profession In India, Consumer Protection Law, Environmental Studies, Corporate Accounting, Business Finance, Law of Contract III, Constitutional Law I, Laws of Crime I, Legal language, Foreign Language I, Interpretation of Statutes, Jurisprudence II, Civil Procedure Code II, Labor Law II, Company Law II, Drafting, Pleading & Conveyancing, Moot Court I, Public International Law, Property law, Taxation I, Administrative Law, Moot Court V|
Law Syllabus (PG Courses)
PG course in the form of LLB is pursued after completing graduation in any discipline and they are directly taught subjects related to law. In LLM, except few core subjects which are common across all specialisations, candidates are offered various elective subjects according to their choice of specialisation branch. The subjects are as follows:
|LLB||Labour Law, Criminal Law, Law of Torts & Consumer Protection Act, Law of Evidence, Human Rights & International Law, Property Law, Legal Aids, Civil Procedure Code, Legal Writing, Code of Criminal Procedure, Land Laws (including ceiling and other local laws), Optional Papers- Contract/ Trust/ Women & Law/ Criminology/ International Economics Law, Family Law, Professional Ethics, Constitutional Law|
|Master of Laws (LLM)||Core subjects, Law and Social Transformation in India, Constitutionalism, Legal Research and Methodology, Judicial Process, Optional subjects to be taken in the three semesters, Constitutional Law, Family Law, Torts, Crimes, International Law, Contract and Insurance, Administrative Law, Business Administration, Labour Management Relations, Taxation, Regulated Economy, Administration of Justice, Human Rights, Environmental Law, Intellectual Property, Law, Science and Technology, Jurisprudence, New Economic Law: WTO in Context, Alternate Dispute Resolution System|
|Master of Business Law (MBL)||Contract Law, Banking Law, Corporate Law, Industrial Relations Law, Environmental Law, Investment Laws, Insurance Law, Law relating to Foreign Trade, Intellectual Property Law, Taxation of Corporations|
|MBL-LLM||Research Based Learning in Law: Models & Methods, Legal System & Democratic Governance : Comparative Perspective, Environmental Governance, Refugee & International Humanitarian Law, Intl. & Comparative Law of IPRs, Corporate Governance, Changing Conception of Justice & Globalised Legal Order, Concept & Development of Human Rights, Changing Conception of Justice & Globalised Legal Order, Financial Market Regulations, International Human Rights Law, International Trade Law, Electives, International Criminal Law, Human Rights, Women & Development, Human Rights, Child & Development, Corporate Mergers & Acquisitions, Regulation of Banking & Insurance, Taxation Law|
Top Colleges for Law
Candidates choose colleges on the basis of the fee structure as well as the placement opportunities. The fee structure of top National Law Universities ranges between INR 4- 15 lakhs for the total course. Various colleges across India are offering different specialisations in order to develop relevant skills for the market. These colleges offer law courses across all levels of education such as UG, PG and Doctorate. Admissions to these courses are done purely on the basis of entrance tests conducted by the university or consortium of colleges or any state-level entrance examination. Government colleges charge lesser than private colleges. Some of the top government and private colleges are in the list below.
Top NIRF Ranked Law Colleges 2023
NIRF Ranking is a vital statistical information to determine the ratings of a college based on the research and professional practices and teaching and learning resources implemented by the institutes. It considers the effectiveness of the programmes offered by various institutes and determine the institute’s outreach and inclusivity and how it is perceived in the educational fraternity. Students interested in pursuing various Law courses can apply in colleges taking into consideration their relevant positions as per the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF). The colleges mentioned in the table are listed as per the NIRF Rankings 2023.
|National Law School of India University, Bengaluru||1|
|National Law University, Delhi||2|
|Nalsar University of Law, Hyderabad||3|
|The West Bengal National University of Juridicial Sciences, Kolkata||4|
|Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi||5|
|Symbiosis Law School, Pune||6|
|Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar||7|
|Siksha O Anusandhan University||8|
|Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur||9|
|Babasheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow||10|
Top Government Colleges for Law
Some of the popular government colleges for Law include top National Law Universities as well as Department of Law across various state and central universities. They have been called as temples of modern legal education and are one of the most sought after colleges by students. The colleges mentioned in the table are listed alphabetically and not in any order of ranking hierarchy.
|Institute||Total Course Fees in INR|
|Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University||70K- 4 lakhs|
|Indian Law Institute||10K- 1 lakhs|
|National Law University and Judicial Academy, Assam||55K- 4 lakhs|
|National Law Institute University, Bhopal||1- 6 lakhs|
|National Law University Odisha||50K- 6 lakhs|
|National Law University Jodhpur||55K-8 lakhs|
|National University of Study and Research in Law||66 K – 6 lakhs|
|Punjab University||5 lakhs|
|Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law||9K- 7 lakhs|
|Ram Manohar Lohia National Law University, Lucknow||1K- 5 lakhs|
Top Private Colleges for Law
Some of the popular private colleges for pursuing Law courses includes private universities and other deemed to be universities considered as institutes of eminence across India. They offer expert faculties and excellent infrastructure and placement opportunities. Admissions to these institutes are conducted by the institute’s entrance examinations. The colleges mentioned in the table are listed alphabetically and not in any order of ranking hierarchy.
|Institute||Total Course Fees in INR|
|Amity University, Gurugram||78K-10 lakhs|
|Amity University, Noida||1-18 lakhs|
|Christ University||70 K-14 lakhs|
|GITAM School of Law||1-7 lakhs|
|ICFAI Law School||15 K – 12 lakhs|
|ILS Law College||4K- 2 lakhs|
|KIIT Law School||2-17 lakhs|
|Lovely Professional University||66 K -12 lakhs|
|SASTRA Deemed to be University||1-7 lakhs|
Note: The fee range given above is for all level Law courses such as UG, PG, PhD and Diploma.
Law Career, Scope and Job Profiles
Becoming a lawyer is not the only job profile one can pursue after completing their law courses. With advancement of legal field, law graduates are hired across all industries in various job profiles. Candidates can increase their chances of being hired by developing their skills and pursuing advanced courses such as Company Secretaryship, Advanced Diploma in various specializations of law or LLM degree. Aspirants can also make their law careers in the job profiles mentioned below:
|Law Job Profile||Description|
|Lawyer||In this job profile aspirants are also sometimes referred to as advocates. A lawyer mostly represents one of the parties/ clients in a trial at court. As part of this job profile, one needs to cross-examine witnesses and then list reasons/ facts around why the court should give the judgement in favour of their clients.|
|Legal Advisors||In this job profile, one is expected to counsel clients on legal rights and obligations. Legal advisors mostly research laws applicable to a particular case and thereafter go through previous judgements passed in cases similar to the one their client is currently facing and thereafter help them in listing out how they can defend themselves.|
|Judges||As a Judge one has to ensure that justice is administered and the legal rights of all the involved parties are safeguarded. A Judge presides over trials/hearings wherein s/he has to listen to the case presented by lawyers.|
|Solicitors||Solicitors give legal advice and represent their clients in legal matters. Solicitors mostly work for firms which take up cases related to their area of work.|
|Legal Executives||People opting to work for such a job profile typically advise their employers on legal matters. They also work on litigation cases for their firm. They also perform administrative functions along with handling in-house legal problems such as checking deeds, issuing writs, collecting information for affidavits as well as drafting legal documents. Legal executives also represent their business houses when they discuss legal issues with other firms.|
|Notary Public||Notaries are appointed by the central government for the whole or specific part of the country. The various State governments also appoint notaries who work for the whole or a specific part of the state. Any person who has been practising Law (as a lawyer) for a minimum of ten years is eligible to apply for a notary post. As per the Notaries Act 1952, the function of a Notary is as follows:|
1. To verify, authenticate, certify or attest the execution of any instrument.
2. To administer an oath to or take an affidavit from any person
3. To translate and verify the translation, of any document from one language into another
4. To act as commissioner, to record evidence in any civil or criminal trial if so directed by the court or authority
5. To act as arbitrator, mediator, or conciliator if so required
|Oath Commissioners||Anyone who works under this job profile is authorised to verify affidavits. An Oath Commissioner is appointed by the Chief Justice and is usually (though not always) a solicitor. The functions of an Oath Commissioner are as follows:|
1. Makes sure that the evidence in question is in written form (the draft affidavit).
2. Establishes that the person before him/her has read the draft affidavit and fully understands the contents.
3. Makes a person swear that the affidavit is true by raising the appropriate Testament in the right hand and repeating the words of the oath.
4. Verifies that the affidavit was properly sworn by completing a “jurat” on the affidavit.
Top Law Recruiters
Salaries earned by law graduates typically vary on the law specialisation they choose along with the company they join. After completing a law course aspirants can work as an understudy with lawyers or even join a corporate company. These companies are world-renowed for their expertise and command over the legal indsutry. They offer amazing career opportunities to candidates either through Pre-Placement opportunities or through placement drives conducted across top law colleges. Apart from these companies, candidates can also apply for academic positions across top law colleges in order to establish a career in academia. Law graduates must qualify AIBE exam to practice in a court of law in India. Know the top law companies in India here.
The top law companies that are known to hire law graduates are listed below:
|Top Recruiters for Law Courses|
|Amarchand & Mangaldas & Suresh A Shroff & Co.||S&R Associates|
|AZB & Partners||Economic Laws Practice|
|Khaitan & CO||Desai & Diwanji|
|J Sagar Associates||Trilegal|
|Luthra & Luthra Law Offices||Talwar Thakore & Associates|